Fiona Middleton. Related terms: Test-Retest Reliability; Factor Analysis; Criterion Validity; Discriminant Validity; Predictive Validity; Rating Scale Convergent validity states that tests having the same or similar constructs should be highly correlated. For instance, Item 1 might be the statement “I feel good about myself” rated using a 1-to-5 Likert-type response format. Criterion validity refers to the ability of the test to predict some criterion behavior external to the test itself. We theorize that all four items reflect the idea of self esteem (this is why I labeled the top part of the figure Theory). discriminant. Convergent validity tests that constructs that are expected to be related are, in fact, related. However, it can be useful in the initial stages of developing a method. Indeed, sometimes a well-established measurement procedure (e.g., a survey), which has strong construct validity and reliability, is either too long or longer than would be preferable. Criterion validity is a good test of whether such newly applied measurement procedures reflect the criterion upon which they are based. Similarly, if she includes questions that are not related to algebra, the results are no longer a valid measure of algebra knowledge. It’s similar to content validity, but face validity is a more informal and subjective assessment. There are four main types of validity: Note that this article deals with types of test validity, which determine the accuracy of the actual components of a measure. To account for a new context, location and/or culture where well-established measurement procedures may need to be modified or completely altered. In quantitative research, you have to consider the reliability and validity of your methods and measurements. Sometimes just finding out more about the construct (which itself must be valid) can be helpful. The concepts of reliability, validity and utility are explored and explained. If it doesn’t show any signs of this validity, it may be measuring something else. include concurrent validity, construct validity, content validity, convergent validity, criterion validity, discriminant validity, divergent validity, face validity, and predictive validity. This is an extremely important point. The answer is that they conduct research using the measure to confirm that the scores make sense based on their understanding of the construct being measured. Thanks for reading! It is a parameter used in sociology, psychology, and other psychometric or behavioral sciences. Criterion validity evaluates how closely the results of your test correspond to the … It is usually an established or widely-used test that is already considered valid. You will have to build a case for the criterion validity of your measurement procedure; ultimately, it is something that will be developed over time as more studies validate your measurement procedure. For example, the validity of a cognitive test for job performance is the demonstrated relationship between test scores and supervisor performance ratings. For example, participants that score high on the new measurement procedure would also score high on the well-established test; and the same would be said for medium and low scores. Randomisation is a powerful tool for increasing internal validity - see confounding. Convergent Validity is a sub-type of construct validity. by Again, measurement involves assigning scores to individuals so that they represent some characteristic of the individuals. However, irrespective of whether a new measurement procedure only needs to be modified, or completely altered, it must be based on a criterion (i.e., a well-established measurement procedure). Or is it actually measuring the respondent’s mood, self-esteem, or some other construct? Face validity considers how suitable the content of a test seems to be on the surface. Validity contains the concepts of content, face, criterion, concurrent, predictive, construct, convergent (and divergent), factorial and discriminant. Together they form a unique fingerprint. Convergent Validity – When two similar questions reveal the same result. In this article, we first explain what criterion validity is and when it should be used, before discussing concurrent validity and predictive validity, providing examples of both. To help test the theoretical relatedness and construct validity of a well-established measurement procedure. Validity tells you how accurately a method measures something. A good experiment turns the theory (constructs) into actual things you can measure. Testing for concurrent validity is likely to be simpler, more cost-effective, and less time intensive than predictive validity. If anything is still unclear, or if you didn’t find what you were looking for here, leave a comment and we’ll see if we can help. Concurrent vs. Predictive Validity Concurrent validity is one of the two types of criterion-related validity . If the outcomes are very similar, the new test has a high criterion validity. Whilst the measurement procedure may be content valid (i.e., consist of measures that are appropriate/relevant and representative of the construct being measured), it is of limited practical use if response rates are particularly low because participants are simply unwilling to take the time to complete such a long measurement procedure. Concurrent validity refers to whether a test’s scores actually evaluate the test’s questions. In the context of questionnaires the term criterion validity is used to mean the extent to which items on a questionnaire are actually measuring the real-world states or events that they are intended to measure. Since the English and French languages have some base commonalities, the content of the measurement procedure (i.e., the measures within the measurement procedure) may only have to be modified. When they do not, this suggests that new measurement procedures need to be created that are more appropriate for the new context, location, and/or culture of interest. All of the other terms address this general issue in different ways. There are many occasions when you might choose to use a well-established measurement procedure (e.g., a 42-item survey on depression) as the basis to create a new measurement procedure (e.g., a 19-item survey on depression) to measure the construct you are interested in (e.g., depression, sleep quality, employee commitment, etc.). The other types of validity described below can all be considered as forms of evidence for construct validity. It could also be argued that testing for criterion validity is an additional way of testing the construct validity of an existing, well-established measurement procedure. We also stated that a measurement procedure may be longer than would be preferable, which mirrors that argument above; that is, that it's easier to get respondents to complete a measurement procedure when it's shorter. Convergent validity refers to how closely the new scale is related to other variables and other measures of the same construct. You need to consider the purpose of the study and measurement procedure; that is, whether you are trying (a) to use an existing, well-established measurement procedure in order to create a new measurement procedure (i.e., concurrent validity), or (b) to examine whether a measurement procedure can be used to make predictions (i.e., predictive validity). The questionnaire must include only relevant questions that measure known indicators of depression. Concurrent Validity. • If the test has the desired correlation with the criterion, the n you have sufficient evidence for criterion -related validity. The criteria are measuring instruments that the test-makers previously evaluated. Convergent validity is a subcategory of construct validity. However, such content may have to be completely altered when a translation into Chinese is made because of the fundamental differences in the two languages (i.e., Chinese and English). To assess criterion validity in your dissertation, you can choose between establishing the concurrent validity or predictive validity of your measurement procedure. Divergent Validity – When two opposite questions reveal opposite results. The advantage of criterion -related validity is that it is a relatively simple statistically based type of validity! Criterion validity is the most powerful way to establish a pre-employment test’s validity. From: Addictive Behaviors, 2012. Published on In Nonetheless, the new measurement procedure (i.e., the translated measurement procedure) should have criterion validity; that is, it must reflect the well-established measurement procedure upon which is was based. To achieve construct validity, you have to ensure that your indicators and measurements are carefully developed based on relevant existing knowledge. A measurement procedure can be too long because it consists of too many measures (e.g., a 100 question survey measuring depression). A) convergent validity B) discriminant validity C) criterion validity Apparently, the right answer is A), but I think you could still argue for C) in the following manner: Scores on the final exam is the outcome measure and GPA, amount of time spent studying, and class attendance predict it. multitrait-multimethod matrix. If a method measures what it claims to measure, and the results closely correspond to real-world values, then it can be considered valid. In the figure below, we see four measures (each is an item on a scale) that all purport to reflect the construct of self esteem. You are conducting a study in a new context, location and/or culture, where well-established measurement procedures no longer reflect the new context, location, and/or culture. Criterion validity (concurrent and predictive validity) There are many occasions when you might choose to use a well-established measurement procedure (e.g., a 42-item survey on depression) as the basis to create a new measurement procedure (e.g., a 19-item survey on depression) to measure the construct you are interested in (e.g., depression, sleep quality, employee commitment, etc. Testing for this type of validity requires that you essentially ask your sample similar questions that are designed to … A construct refers to a concept or characteristic that can’t be directly observed, but can be measured by observing other indicators that are associated with it. To establish convergent validity, you need to show that measures that should be related are in reality related. There are two things to think about when choosing between concurrent and predictive validity: The purpose of the study and measurement procedure. Criterion validity:In this validity, the extent to which the outcome of a specific measure or tool corresponds to the outcomes of other valid measures of the same concept is examined. The answer is that they conduct research using the measure to confirm that the scores make sense based on their understanding of th… However, rather than assessing criterion validity, per se, determining criterion validity is a choice between establishing concurrent validity or predictive validity. Convergent Validity. This type of validity is similar to predictive validity. External validity is about generalization: To what extent can an effect in research, be generalized to populations, settings, treatment variables, and measurement variables?External validity is usually split into two distinct types, population validity and ecological validity and they are both essential elements in judging the strength of an experimental design. Hope you found this article helpful. It mentions at the beginning before any validity evidence is discussed that "historically, this type of evidence has been referred to as concurrent validity, convergent and discriminant validity, predictive validity, and criterion-related validity." The validity of a test is constrained by its reliability. If some types of algebra are left out, then the results may not be an accurate indication of students’ understanding of the subject. Construct validity is thus an assessment of the quality of an instrument or experimental design. On the bottom part of the figure (Observation) w… To evaluate criterion validity, you calculate the correlation between the results of your measurement and the results of the criterion measurement. extent to which the test correlates with other tests, which measure the same criterion. This well-established measurement procedure acts as the criterion against which the criterion validity of the new measurement procedure is assessed. A. Criterion-related validity Predictive validity. Conclusions. Concurrent validity is a type of evidence that can be gathered to defend the use of a test for predicting other outcomes. The criterion is an external measurement of the same thing. Convergent validity takes two measures that are supposed to be measuring the same construct and shows that they are related. It says 'Does it measure the cons… verbal reasoning should be related to other types of reasoning, like visual reasoning. But based on existing psychological research and theory, we can measure depression based on a collection of symptoms and indicators, such as low self-confidence and low energy levels. the importance of the decision you are making with them. If you think of contentvalidity as the extent to which a test correlates with (i.e., corresponds to) thecontent domain, criterion validity is similar in that it is the extent to which atest … Construct Validity: Convergent vs. Discriminant. Results. If you are doing experimental research, you also need to consider internal and external validity, which deal with the experimental design and the generalizability of results. But how do researchers know that the scores actually represent the characteristic, especially when it is a construct like intelligence, self-esteem, depression, or working memory capacity? Criterion validity A measurement technique has criterion validity if its results are closely related to those given by This well-established measurement procedure is the criterion against which you are comparing the new measurement procedure (i.e., why we call it criterion validity). As a result, there is a need to take a well-established measurement procedure, which acts as your criterion, but you need to create a new measurement procedure that is more appropriate for the new context, location, and/or culture. Revised on Second, I make a distinction between two broad types: translation validity and criterion-related validity. Again, measurement involves assigning scores to individuals so that they represent some characteristic of the individuals. • Content Validity -- inspection of items for “proper domain” • Construct Validity -- correlation and factor analyses to check on discriminant validity of the measure • Criterion-related Validity -- predictive, concurrent and/or postdictive In order to estimate this type of validity, test-makers administer the test and correlate it with the criteria. ). Construct validity evaluates whether a measurement tool really represents the thing we are interested in measuring. The measurement procedures could include a range of research methods (e.g., surveys, structured observation, or structured interviews, etc. extent to which the test NOT correlates with other tests, which measure unrelated criterions. However, to ensure that you have built a valid new measurement procedure, you need to compare it against one that is already well-established; that is, one that already has demonstrated construct validity and reliability [see the articles: Construct validity and Reliability in research]. In the case of pre-employment tests, the two variables being compared most frequently are test scores and a particular business metric, such as employee performance or retention rates. "Convergent validity refers to the degree to which scores on a test correlate with (or are related to) scores on other tests that are designed to assess the same construct. To produce valid results, the content of a test, survey or measurement method must cover all relevant parts of the subject it aims to measure. There are a number of reasons why we would be interested in using criterions to create a new measurement procedure: (a) to create a shorter version of a well-established measurement procedure; (b) to account for a new context, location, and/or culture where well-established measurement procedures need to be modified or completely altered; and (c) to help test the theoretical relatedness and construct validity of a well-established measurement procedure. These are two different types of criterion validity, each of which has a specific purpose. Therefore, you have to create new measures for the new measurement procedure. On its surface, the survey seems like a good representation of what you want to test, so you consider it to have high face validity. If you develop a questionnaire to diagnose depression, you need to know: does the questionnaire really measure the construct of depression? Convergent validity tests that constructs that are expected to be related are, in fact, related. Construct validity is about ensuring that the method of measurement matches the construct you want to measure. In research, it is common to want to take measurement procedures that have been well-established in one context, location, and/or culture, and apply them to another context, location, and/or culture. The test should cover every form of algebra that was taught in the class. It’s central to establishing the overall validity of a method. There are, however, some limitations to criterion -related validity… C onvergent validity and discriminant validity are commonly regarded as ways to assess the construct validity of a measurement procedure (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). Construct validity’s main idea is that a test used to measure a construct is, in fact, measuring a construct. Convergent validity, a parameter often used in sociology, psychology, and other behavioral sciences, refers to the degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related. the importance of criterion-related validity depends on. Discriminant validity tests whether believed unrelated constructs are, in fact, unrelated. If there is a high correlation, this gives a good indication that your test is measuring what it intends to measure. Criterion related validity refers to how strongly the scores on the test are related to other behaviors. Construct validity means that a test designed to measure a particular construct (i.e. -> correlation decreases->threat to criterion validity. There is no objective, observable entity called “depression” that we can measure directly. The criterion and the new measurement procedure must be theoretically related. A mathematics teacher develops an end-of-semester algebra test for her class. This may be a time consideration, but it is also an issue when you are combining multiple measurement procedures, each of which has a large number of measures (e.g., combining two surveys, each with around 40 questions). From: The Measurement of Health and Health Status, 2017. convergent validity. Example of Predictive (criterion-related validity) ... example of convergent validity. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Medicine & Life Sciences However, the one difference is that an existing measurement procedure may not be too long (e.g., having only 40 questions in a survey), but would encourage much greater response rates if shorter (e.g., having just 18 questions). But how do researchers know that the scores actually represent the characteristic, especially when it is a construct like intelligence, self-esteem, depression, or working memory capacity? Also called concrete validity, criterion validity refers to a test’s correlation with a concrete outcome. You want to create a shorter version of an existing measurement procedure, which is unlikely to be achieved through simply removing one or two measures within the measurement procedure (e.g., one or two questions in a survey), possibly because this would affect the content validity of the measurement procedure [see the article: Content validity]. intelligence) is actually measuring that construct. A university professor creates a new test to measure applicants’ English writing ability. Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Convergent and criterion-related validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scale.'. For example, a survey is being conducted by a news agency for assessing the political opinion of the voters in a town. Constructs can be characteristics of individuals, such as intelligence, obesity, job satisfaction, or depression; they can also be broader concepts applied to organizations or social groups, such as gender equality, corporate social responsibility, or freedom of speech. Criterion validity is the degree to which test scores correlate with, predict, orinform decisions regarding another measure or outcome. Constructvalidity occurs when the theoretical constructs of cause and effect accurately represent the real-world situations they are intended to model. Convergent validity and divergent validity are ways to assess the construct validity of a measurement procedure (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). The new measurement procedure may only need to be modified or it may need to be completely altered. Each of these is discussed in turn: To create a shorter version of a well-established measurement procedure. To assess how well the test really does measure students’ writing ability, she finds an existing test that is considered a valid measurement of English writing ability, and compares the results when the same group of students take both tests. Concurrent validity pertains to the extent to which the measurement tool relates to other scales measuring the same construct and that have already been validated (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955). Criterion validity evaluates how closely the results of your test correspond to the results of a different test. Criterion validity reflects the use of a criterion - a well-established measurement procedure - to create a new measurement procedure to measure the construct you are interested in. As face validity is a subjective measure, it’s often considered the weakest form of validity. This is related to how well the experiment is operationalized. Compare your paper with over 60 billion web pages and 30 million publications. ), provided that they yield quantitative data. Criterion validity. Reliability contains the concepts of internal consistency and stability and equivalence. If a test does not consistently measure a construct or domain then it cannot expect to have high validity coefficients. Two methods are often applied to test convergent validity. Criterion validity is demonstrated when there is a strong relationship between the scores from the two measurement procedures, which is typically examined using a correlation. June 19, 2020. Content validity assesses whether a test is representative of all aspects of the construct. If some aspects are missing from the measurement (or if irrelevant aspects are included), the validity is threatened. Ps… Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot. For example, you may want to translate a well-established measurement procedure, which is construct valid, from one language (e.g., English) into another (e.g., Chinese or French). Construct validity is the approximate truth of the conclusion that your operationalization accurately reflects its construct. If you are unsure what construct validity is, we recommend you first read: Construct validity.Convergent validity helps to establish construct validity when you use two different measurement procedures and research … You create a survey to measure the regularity of people’s dietary habits. Conversely, discriminant validityshows that two measures that are not supposed to be related are in fact, unrelated. : the purpose of the other types of criterion validity refers to how the. A construct considers how suitable the content of a measurement tool really represents thing. That can be too long because it consists of too many measures (,... 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